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API

Table of contents:

This page gathers public API of React Native Testing Library along with usage examples.

render

Defined as:

function render(
component: React.Element<any>,
options?: RenderOptions,
): RenderResult {}

Deeply renders given React element and returns helpers to query the output components structure.

import { render } from '@testing-library/react-native';
import { QuestionsBoard } from '../QuestionsBoard';

test('should verify two questions', () => {
render(<QuestionsBoard {...props} />);
const allQuestions = screen.queryAllByRole('header');

expect(allQuestions).toHaveLength(2);
});

When using React context providers, like Redux Provider, you'll likely want to wrap rendered component with them. In such cases it's convenient to create your custom render method. Follow this great guide on how to set this up.

The render method returns a RenderResult object having properties described below.

info

Latest render result is kept in screen variable that can be imported from @testing-library/react-native package.

Using screen instead of destructuring render result is recommended approach. See this article from Kent C. Dodds for more details.

render options

The behavior of render method can be customized by passing various options as a second argument of RenderOptions type:

wrapper option

wrapper?: React.ComponentType<any>,

This options allows you to wrap tested component, passed as the first option to the render() function, in additional wrapper component. This is most useful for creating reusable custom render functions for common React Context providers.

createNodeMock option

createNodeMock?: (element: React.Element<any>) => any,

This options allows you to pass createNodeMock option to ReactTestRenderer.create() method in order to allow for custom mock refs. You can learn more about this options from React Test Renderer documentation.

unstable_validateStringsRenderedWithinText option

unstable_validateStringsRenderedWithinText?: boolean;
note

This options is experimental, in some cases it might not work as intended, and its behavior might change without observing SemVer requirements for breaking changes.

This experimental option allows you to replicate React Native behavior of throwing Invariant Violation: Text strings must be rendered within a <Text> component error when you try to render string value under components different than <Text>, e.g. under <View>.

This check is not enforced by React Test Renderer and hence by default React Native Testing Library also does not check this. That might result in runtime errors when running your code on a device, while the code works without errors in tests.

...queries

The most important feature of render is providing a set of helpful queries that allow you to find certain elements in the view hierarchy.

See Queries for a complete list.

Example

import { render } from '@testing-library/react-native';

const { getByText, queryByA11yState } = render(<Component />);

update

Also available under rerender alias

update(element: React.Element<any>): void
rerender(element: React.Element<any>): void

Re-render the in-memory tree with a new root element. This simulates a React update at the root. If the new element has the same type and key as the previous element, the tree will be updated; otherwise, it will re-mount a new tree. This is useful when testing for componentDidUpdate behavior, by passing updated props to the component.

Example code

unmount

unmount(): void

Unmount the in-memory tree, triggering the appropriate lifecycle events.

note

Usually you should not need to call unmount as it is done automatically if your test runner supports afterEach hook (like Jest, mocha, Jasmine).

debug

debug(message?: string): void

Pretty prints deeply rendered component passed to render with optional message on top.

render(<Component />);

screen.debug('optional message');

logs optional message and colored JSX:

optional message

<View
onPress={[Function bound fn]}
>
<Text>Press me</Text>
</View>

debug.shallow

Pretty prints shallowly rendered component passed to render with optional message on top.

toJSON

toJSON(): ReactTestRendererJSON | null

Get the rendered component JSON representation, e.g. for snapshot testing.

container

container: ReactTestInstance;

A reference to the rendered root element.

screen

let screen: RenderResult;

Hold the value of latest render call for easier access to query and other functions returned by render.

Its value is automatically cleared after each test by calling cleanup. If no render call has been made in a given test then it holds a special object that implements RenderResult but throws a helpful error on each property and method access.

cleanup

const cleanup: () => void;

Unmounts React trees that were mounted with render and clears screen variable that holds latest render output.

info

Please note that this is done automatically if the testing framework you're using supports the afterEach global (like mocha, Jest, and Jasmine). If not, you will need to do manual cleanups after each test.

For example, if you're using the jest testing framework, then you would need to use the afterEach hook like so:

import { cleanup, render } from '@testing-library/react-native/pure';
import { View } from 'react-native';

afterEach(cleanup);

it('renders a view', () => {
render(<View />);
// ...
});

The afterEach(cleanup) call also works in describe blocks:

describe('when logged in', () => {
afterEach(cleanup);

it('renders the user', () => {
render(<SiteHeader />);
// ...
});
});

Failing to call cleanup when you've called render could result in a memory leak and tests which are not "idempotent" (which can lead to difficult to debug errors in your tests).

fireEvent

function fireEvent(
element: ReactTestInstance,
eventName: string,
...data: Array<any>
): void {}

Fires native-like event with data.

Invokes a given event handler (whether native or custom) on the element, bubbling to the root of the rendered tree.

import { render, screen, fireEvent } from '@testing-library/react-native';

test('fire changeText event', () => {
const onEventMock = jest.fn();
render(
// MyComponent renders TextInput which has a placeholder 'Enter details'
// and with `onChangeText` bound to handleChangeText
<MyComponent handleChangeText={onEventMock} />
);

fireEvent(screen.getByPlaceholderText('change'), 'onChangeText', 'ab');
expect(onEventMock).toHaveBeenCalledWith('ab');
});
note

Please note that from version 7.0 fireEvent performs checks that should prevent events firing on disabled elements.

An example using fireEvent with native events that aren't already aliased by the fireEvent api.

import { TextInput, View } from 'react-native';
import { fireEvent, render } from '@testing-library/react-native';

const onBlurMock = jest.fn();

render(
<View>
<TextInput placeholder="my placeholder" onBlur={onBlurMock} />
</View>
);

// you can omit the `on` prefix
fireEvent(screen.getByPlaceholderText('my placeholder'), 'blur');

fireEvent[eventName]

fireEvent[eventName](element: ReactTestInstance, ...data: Array<any>): void

Convenience methods for common events like: press, changeText, scroll.

fireEvent.press

fireEvent.press: (element: ReactTestInstance, ...data: Array<any>) => void

Invokes press event handler on the element or parent element in the tree.

import { View, Text, TouchableOpacity } from 'react-native';
import { render, screen, fireEvent } from '@testing-library/react-native';

const onPressMock = jest.fn();
const eventData = {
nativeEvent: {
pageX: 20,
pageY: 30,
},
};

render(
<View>
<TouchableOpacity onPress={onPressMock}>
<Text>Press me</Text>
</TouchableOpacity>
</View>
);

fireEvent.press(screen.getByText('Press me'), eventData);
expect(onPressMock).toHaveBeenCalledWith(eventData);

fireEvent.changeText

fireEvent.changeText: (element: ReactTestInstance, ...data: Array<any>) => void

Invokes changeText event handler on the element or parent element in the tree.

import { View, TextInput } from 'react-native';
import { render, screen, fireEvent } from '@testing-library/react-native';

const onChangeTextMock = jest.fn();
const CHANGE_TEXT = 'content';

render(
<View>
<TextInput placeholder="Enter data" onChangeText={onChangeTextMock} />
</View>
);

fireEvent.changeText(screen.getByPlaceholderText('Enter data'), CHANGE_TEXT);

fireEvent.scroll

fireEvent.scroll: (element: ReactTestInstance, ...data: Array<any>) => void

Invokes scroll event handler on the element or parent element in the tree.

On a ScrollView

import { ScrollView, Text } from 'react-native';
import { render, screen, fireEvent } from '@testing-library/react-native';

const onScrollMock = jest.fn();
const eventData = {
nativeEvent: {
contentOffset: {
y: 200,
},
},
};

render(
<ScrollView onScroll={onScrollMock}>
<Text>XD</Text>
</ScrollView>
);

fireEvent.scroll(screen.getByText('scroll-view'), eventData);

On a FlatList

import { FlatList, View } from 'react-native';
import { render, screen, fireEvent } from '@testing-library/react-native';

const onEndReached = jest.fn();
render(
<FlatList
data={Array.from({ length: 10 }, (_, key) => ({ key: `${key}` }))}
renderItem={() => <View style={{ height: 500, width: 100 }} />}
onEndReached={onEndReached}
onEndReachedThreshold={0.2}
testID="flat-list"
/>
);
const eventData = {
nativeEvent: {
contentOffset: {
y: 500,
},
contentSize: {
// Dimensions of the scrollable content
height: 500,
width: 100,
},
layoutMeasurement: {
// Dimensions of the device
height: 100,
width: 100,
},
},
};

fireEvent.scroll(screen.getByTestId('flat-list'), eventData);
expect(onEndReached).toHaveBeenCalled();
note

If you're noticing that components are not being found on a list, even after mocking a scroll event, try changing the initialNumToRender that you have set. If you aren't comfortable changing the code to accept this prop from the unit test, try using an e2e test that might better suit what use case you're attempting to replicate.

waitFor

Defined as:

function waitFor<T>(
expectation: () => T,
{ timeout: number = 4500, interval: number = 50 }
): Promise<T> {}

Waits for non-deterministic periods of time until your element appears or times out. waitFor periodically calls expectation every interval milliseconds to determine whether the element appeared or not.

import { render, screen, waitFor } from '@testing-library/react-native';

test('waiting for an Banana to be ready', async () => {
render(<Banana />);

await waitFor(() => screen.getByText('Banana ready'));
});
info

In order to properly use waitFor you need at least React >=16.9.0 (featuring async act) or React Native >=0.61 (which comes with React >=16.9.0).

note

If you receive warnings related to act() function consult our Undestanding Act function document.

waitForElementToBeRemoved

Defined as:

function waitForElementToBeRemoved<T>(
expectation: () => T,
{ timeout: number = 4500, interval: number = 50 }
): Promise<T> {}

Waits for non-deterministic periods of time until queried element is removed or times out. waitForElementToBeRemoved periodically calls expectation every interval milliseconds to determine whether the element has been removed or not.

import { render, screen, waitForElementToBeRemoved } from '@testing-library/react-native';

test('waiting for an Banana to be removed', async () => {
render(<Banana />);

await waitForElementToBeRemoved(() => screen.getByText('Banana ready'));
});

This method expects that the element is initially present in the render tree and then is removed from it. If the element is not present when you call this method it throws an error.

You can use any of getBy, getAllBy, queryBy and queryAllBy queries for expectation parameter.

info

In order to properly use waitForElementToBeRemoved you need at least React >=16.9.0 (featuring async act) or React Native >=0.61 (which comes with React >=16.9.0).

note

If you receive warnings related to act() function consult our Undestanding Act function document.

within, getQueriesForElement

Defined as:

function within(
element: ReactTestInstance
): Queries {}

function getQueriesForElement(
element: ReactTestInstance
): Queries {}

within (also available as getQueriesForElement alias) performs queries scoped to given element.

note

Please note that additional render specific operations like update, unmount, debug, toJSON are not included.

const detailsScreen = within(screen.getByA11yHint('Details Screen'));
expect(detailsScreen.getByText('Some Text')).toBeTruthy();
expect(detailsScreen.getByDisplayValue('Some Value')).toBeTruthy();
expect(detailsScreen.queryByLabelText('Some Label')).toBeTruthy();
await expect(detailsScreen.findByA11yHint('Some Label')).resolves.toBeTruthy();

Use cases for scoped queries include:

  • queries scoped to a single item inside a FlatList containing many items
  • queries scoped to a single screen in tests involving screen transitions (e.g. with react-navigation)

query APIs

Each of the get APIs listed in the render section above have a complimentary query API. The get APIs will throw errors if a proper node cannot be found. This is normally the desired effect. However, if you want to make an assertion that an element is not present in the hierarchy, then you can use the query API instead:

import { render, screen } from '@testing-library/react-native';

render(<Form />);
const submitButton = screen.queryByText('submit');
expect(submitButton).toBeNull(); // it doesn't exist

queryAll APIs

Each of the query APIs have a corresponding queryAll version that always returns an Array of matching nodes. getAll is the same but throws when the array has a length of 0.

import { render } from '@testing-library/react-native';

render(<Forms />);
const submitButtons = screen.queryAllByText('submit');
expect(submitButtons).toHaveLength(3); // expect 3 elements

act

Useful function to help testing components that use hooks API. By default any render, update, fireEvent, and waitFor calls are wrapped by this function, so there is no need to wrap it manually. This method is re-exported from react-test-renderer.

Consult our Undestanding Act function document for more understanding of its intricacies.

renderHook

Defined as:

function renderHook<Result, Props>(
callback: (props?: Props) => Result,
options?: RenderHookOptions<Props>
): RenderHookResult<Result, Props>;

Renders a test component that will call the provided callback, including any hooks it calls, every time it renders. Returns RenderHookResult object, which you can interact with.

import { renderHook } from '@testing-library/react-native';
import { useCount } from '../useCount';

it('should increment count', () => {
const { result } = renderHook(() => useCount());

expect(result.current.count).toBe(0);
act(() => {
// Note that you should wrap the calls to functions your hook returns with `act` if they trigger an update of your hook's state to ensure pending useEffects are run before your next assertion.
result.current.increment();
});
expect(result.current.count).toBe(1);
});
// useCount.js
export const useCount = () => {
const [count, setCount] = useState(0);
const increment = () => setCount((previousCount) => previousCount + 1);

return { count, increment };
};

The renderHook function accepts the following arguments:

callback

The function that is called each render of the test component. This function should call one or more hooks for testing.

The props passed into the callback will be the initialProps provided in the options to renderHook, unless new props are provided by a subsequent rerender call.

options (Optional)

A RenderHookOptions<Props> object to modify the execution of the callback function, containing the following properties:

initialProps

The initial values to pass as props to the callback function of renderHook. The Props type is determined by the type passed to or inferred by the renderHook call.

wrapper

A React component to wrap the test component in when rendering. This is usually used to add context providers from React.createContext for the hook to access with useContext.

RenderHookResult object

interface RenderHookResult<Result, Props> {
result: { current: Result };
rerender: (props: Props) => void;
unmount: () => void;
}

The renderHook function returns an object that has the following properties:

result

The current value of the result will reflect the latest of whatever is returned from the callback passed to renderHook. The Result type is determined by the type passed to or inferred by the renderHook call.

rerender

A function to rerender the test component, causing any hooks to be recalculated. If newProps are passed, they will replace the callback function's initialProps for subsequent rerenders. The Props type is determined by the type passed to or inferred by the renderHook call.

unmount

A function to unmount the test component. This is commonly used to trigger cleanup effects for useEffect hooks.

Examples

Here we present some extra examples of using renderHook API.

With initialProps

const useCount = (initialCount: number) => {
const [count, setCount] = useState(initialCount);
const increment = () => setCount((previousCount) => previousCount + 1);

useEffect(() => {
setCount(initialCount);
}, [initialCount]);

return { count, increment };
};

it('should increment count', () => {
const { result, rerender } = renderHook(
(initialCount: number) => useCount(initialCount),
{ initialProps: 1 }
);

expect(result.current.count).toBe(1);

act(() => {
result.current.increment();
});

expect(result.current.count).toBe(2);
rerender(5);
expect(result.current.count).toBe(5);
});

With wrapper

it('should use context value', () => {
function Wrapper({ children }: { children: ReactNode }) {
return <Context.Provider value="provided">{children}</Context.Provider>;
}

const { result } = renderHook(() => useHook(), { wrapper: Wrapper });
// ...
});

Configuration

configure

type Config = {
asyncUtilTimeout: number;
};

function configure(options: Partial<Config>) {}

asyncUtilTimeout option

Default timeout, in ms, for async helper functions (waitFor, waitForElementToBeRemoved) and findBy* queries. Defaults to 1000 ms.

resetToDefaults()

function resetToDefaults() {}

Accessibility

isInaccessible

function isInaccessible(
element: ReactTestInstance | null
): boolean {}

Checks if given element is hidden from assistive technology, e.g. screen readers.

note

Like isInaccessible function from DOM Testing Library this function considers both accessibility elements and presentational elements (regular Views) to be accessible, unless they are hidden in terms of host platform.

This covers only part of ARIA notion of Accessiblity Tree, as ARIA excludes both hidden and presentational elements from the Accessibility Tree.

For the scope of this function, element is inaccessible when it, or any of its ancestors, meets any of the following conditions:

Specifying accessible={false}, accessiblityRole="none", or importantForAccessibility="no" props does not cause the element to become inaccessible.